This paper is also available in Portugese Abstract: Text based computer mediated communication CMC has recently been the focus of many ethnographic studies by social scientists. In my own research of cybersex, I followed the lead of these researchers and utilised ethnographic methods but encountered several significant difficulties. These difficulties include the lack of parameters for users of text based virtual environments, the necessity of online interviews rather than face to face ones, and the frequent misinterpretations that occur due to the narrow bandwidth of text based CMC. A significant amount of this research has looked at the ways in which people use text based CMC to chat with each other in real time on the Internet and on socially oriented online services such as America Online AOL and CompuServe. In these studies, researchers have found that text based virtual environments chat rooms, IRC chat channels, and MUDs are places where users can experiment with identity and gender re construction Reid , ; Turkle , form new friendships Baym, , and join together with other users in the building of virtual communities Rheingold , ; Lichty
danah boyd :: Publications
While ethnographic research can be applied to virtually any kind of sociological or anthropological subject of inquiry, there are distinct advantages and disadvantages to using the method. Background There are various types of ethnographic research which may be employed to study human populations, beliefs and customs. Some of these include macro-ethnographic research, which entails studying a larger group of people; and micro-ethnographic research, which involves observing a smaller sample of humans and practices.
Advantages One of the more widely cited benefits of conducting ethnographic research is that due to the first-hand observation that is involved, usually conducted over an extended period of time, the research can provide extensive and in-depth findings about human behavior. In addition, because ethnographic research relies on observation rather than examinations or predetermined tests, the research can evolve and explore new lines of inquiry.
Netnography is an adaptation of ethnography, which is a very old, traditional technique in anthropology which is based on participant observation. It literally means “writing about cultures”– the study of culture that’s written up. And a netnography is an adaptation of ethnography for the online world–for the contingencies of online communities and online cultures.
Introduction The further one regresses in time, the more obvious it becomes that the principal and singular religious worship found around the globe has revolved around nature. This nature worship has included reverence not only for the earth, its creatures and their fecundity, but also for the sun, moon, planets and stars. For many thousands of years, man has looked to the skies and become awestruck by what he has observed.
This awe has led to the reverence and worship both of the night and day skies, an adoration called “astrotheology. So fascinated by the sky, or heavens, has been man that he has created entire religions, with organized priesthoods, complex rituals and massive edifices, in order to tell its story. The story begins, as far back as the current evidence reveals, with the night sky as the primary focus of pre-agricultural, nomadic peoples. The night sky held particular importance in the lives of desert nomads, because the fiery sun was a hindrance to them, while the cool night allowed them to travel.
In traveling by night, these desert nomads became keenly aware of the night sky’s various landmarks, including the stars, planets and moon. The nomads noticed regularity and began to chart the skies, hoping to divine omens, portents and signs. Others who developed this astronomical science included ancient mariners who journeyed thousands of miles through the open seas, such as the Polynesians, whose long, Pacific voyages have been estimated to have begun at least 30, years ago.
Websites by Briana Pobiner Obama and Anthropology: Gecan Nineteenth Century Smithsonian Anthropologists: Creating a Discipline and a Profession by Pamela M. Brooks More Than Violence: Schwartz Written in Bone: Forensic Anthropology Resources by Marilyn R.
Lonely ethnographer seeks research similarities: Comparing shopping for love online. Internet dating and social networking is the great solution to 21st- A voicing which for both internet dating and ethnography allows for well paced stages which.
More recently, theorists of play Brian Sutton-Smith and Mary Flanagan have questioned this assertion, pointing to cultural formation and subversion as products of play. Positivist thinkers and game design practitioners like Jesse Schell have identified the production of subjectivation, via a heightened sense of self-esteem as a result of the achievement of goals within games.
Using a philosophical framework of transcendental empiricism that aims to identify the conditions of creative production, we use concepts from Gilles Deleuze and Gilbert Simondon and the play theorists mentioned above to examine the nature and history of the concept of production in play and propose several additional ways in which play may be considered productive.
These are the production of percepts and affects; the production of transductive individuations; the production of social individuals and identity; the production of anxiety; the production of culture; the production of subversion; the production of global corporate profit and the production of memory. We arrive at these assertions by discussing three key topics: Firstly we account for how play operates within culture in excess of its relationship to digital games, contrasting contemporary views with much older and less institutionalised ideas of what play may be in the works of Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schiller.
These help set out an agenda for play that is socially involved and opens the individual to the radical production of selves within a social sphere. We then move to discuss production in terms of what play can deliver in addition to instrumental gain, and how play can complement, mirror and support the social and technical structures of digital capitalism, as well as its subversion. We talk here not only of an economic or cultural production, but of a Guattarian conception of production, where new kinds of subjectivation are produced from desire.
An important contemporary mode of this production is anxiety, and this leads us to take Simondonian readings of the role of play in individuation, specifically play in the context of digitally networked games. We find that such global networks facilitate an impulse towards the transindividual, an impulse that is constantly thwarted by a subsumption within a restrictive, self-producing subjectivity whose currency is anxiety and whose domain is memory.
Online Assignment for Dummies
Rachel has spent half the day online chatting to a few folks, writing emails, and intermittently researching. I have spent the whole morning gathering dinner supplies, playing goop killing games on Ipod, and reading articles on why middle aged women suck at dating. Obviously we either have concentration issues or are particularly unmotivated. I propose that we are unmotivated and hence we are unable to concentrate.
The challenge we take up in the following section is to convert the profiles developed by each of us on a female-only dating site towards epistemological benefits: to show how online profiles work for ethnography, at the same time as they allow us to come to know the profiles of others.
Instructions Choosing a Topic For our final project for the class, you will be asked to select a subculture that you have currently chosen to be a part of or one that you will choose to connect yourself to and to investigate this subculture in a larger research paper called an autoethnography. For this immediate assignment, I would like you to identify two subcultures that you are currently a part of and that you would find interesting to research.
From these two options, you will be choosing a topic for your final research paper. We will be sharing these ideas with the entire class. Please be as specific as possible. Your topics must fulfill the following criteria: You must be able to do background and preliminary research on your topics.
What is netnography
The goal is a complete, accurate description of the culture being studied, on its own terms. Ethnography should not be confused with ethnology , which is the comparative study of cultures. Although ethnographic studies inevitably involve some comparisons with other cultures, their primary purpose is not comparison.
Sounds familiar: People on online dating sites are experiencing frustration because it does seem that the internet in many ways is just the same old bar scene.
Geography, History, and Ethnography This article is divided into the following sections: The total number of Baluch in Baluchistan in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan , the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere in Asia and Africa is variously estimated at between three and five million. Their history up to the time when they were drawn into Western colonial history in the 19th century is poorly known. A copious literature has been produced on them since then, especially in English, but also in Persian and several other European and regional languages.
Baluchistan is generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman. Its boundaries are vague and not consistent with modern provincial boundaries. It appears to have been divided throughout history between Iranian highland and Indian lowland spheres of influence, and since it has been formally divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and India later Pakistan.
It is unclear when the name Baluchistan came into general use. But their activities may even at that time have extended a considerable distance to the east. The various inconclusive theories concerning their origins are reviewed by Dames , pp. But it suggests that they numbered in the tens of thousands at most; that they were pastoralists, herding sheep and goats; and that, like other Middle Eastern pastoralists, they were highly mobile, if not entirely nomadic, living in tribal communities in the sense that they construed their social relations according to genealogical—patrilineal—criteria ; and that they were poorly integrated into the settled polity, which they continually harassed.
Anime plus Autoethnography
People on online dating sites are experiencing frustration because it does seem that the internet in many ways is just the same old bar scene. This is one of the findings of research by anthropologist Susan E. She is conducting an ethnographic study of online dating among women age thirty and above. She says the women on the one hand gained a sense of empowerment from their online dating experiences.
But they still wanted the man to make the first move and expected him pick up the tab:
Online ethnography studies usually last over a set period of days (three to 10) but can be extended to last several weeks or months. Each participant typically spends a total of two to three hours per week providing detailed answers.
Social trends Since the s, Internet dating has become more popular with smartphones. The stigma associated with online dating dropped over the years and people view online dating more positively. Further, during this period, the usage among to year-olds tripled, while that among to year-olds doubled. Online introduction services In , a variation of the online dating model emerged in the form of introduction sites, where members have to search and contact other members, who introduce them to other members whom they deem compatible.
Introduction sites differ from the traditional online dating model, and attracted a large number of users and significant investor interest. Such sites earn revenue from a mix of advertising and sale of additional options. This model also allows users to switch between free and paying status at will, with sites accepting a variety of online currencies and payment options. Since advertising revenues are modest compared to membership fees, this model requires a large number of page views to achieve profitability.
However, Sam Yagan describes dating sites as ideal advertising platforms because of the wealth of demographic data made available by users.
The Application of Ethnography Cybersociology, Issue 1
Anthropology has gone high tech. That includes ethnography, the study of cultures. Though ethnographers have historically observed their subjects in person, the fact that we now live so much of our lives online means these scientists also have a growing interest in the virtual human experience. We sat down with the team members — students Liza Kurtz, Melissa Beresford and Monet Niesluchowski; postdoctoral scholar Sarah Trainer; and Professors Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis Slade — to discuss the unique implications and requirements for this type of study, and how the relatively unexplored digital space is ripe with potential for insights into humankind.
What inspired you to look into online ethnography?
They were first passed in the s to prevent freed Black slaves from marrying Whites and the biracial children of White slave owners and African slaves from inheriting property. It was not until , during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, that the U. Supreme Court ruled in the Loving v. Virginia case that such laws were unconstitutional. At that time, 38 states in the U. As suc, one could argue that it’s only been in recent years that interracial marriages have become common in American society.
Of course, anti-miscegenation laws were part of a larger anti-Asian movement that eventually led to the Page Law of that effectively almost eliminated Chinese women from immigrating ot the U. These laws actually made the situation worse because Asian men were no longer able to bring their wives over to the U.
So in a way, those who wanted to become married had no other choice but to socialize with non-Asians.
Download Parents of Children with Autism: An Ethnography PDF
The truth about online dating and the link between depression and relational uncertainty March 8, , SAGE Publications There’s no doubt that meeting partners on the Internet is a growing trend. But can we trust the information that people provide about themselves via online dating services? And why is depression so dissatisfying in relationships?
The authors also discuss their findings in a new podcast series: Jeffrey Hall of the University of Kansas is lead author of the paper on internet dating, which shows that people looking for romance online actually behave very much as they do in face to face dating and relationships.
Online Dating for ‘Ordinary’ People: A brief ethnography of internet dating for middle-aged middle-class divorced women from Leigh-on-Sea. Online Dating for ‘Ordinary’ People: A brief ethnography of internet dating for middle-aged middle-class divorced women from Leigh-on-Sea. Uploaded by. Christian Hurley. Download with Google Download.
The use of the Internet among Indonesian Exiles in the Netherlands Numerous studies have shown that exilic experiences influence how exile communities position themselves toward their homeland. However, discussions on these issues tend to overlook the dynamics and engagement within the community in However, discussions on these issues tend to overlook the dynamics and engagement within the community in negotiating that position through their daily practices.
In the case of Indonesian exiles living in the Netherlands, there is a strong tendency to portray them as passive victims of the eradication of communism that followed the events of 30th September Hence, this community is often presented as one that is defined by its memory of exilic experiences. Based on interviews and observations during fieldwork, I would argue that most of the values and ideals that are shared among this community were developed before they became exiles.
Their opposition was expressed through publications and participations within various organizations. In the early s, the Internet was incorporated into the movement, providing more dynamic into their projection of ideals and values.
Online dating service
Why would anybody ever eat anything besides breakfast food? Jun 21, Bumble: One profile after another. This person hates cats. You have a cat.
Online dating can be a nightmare. One profile after another. This person hates cats. You have a cat. Swipe left. This person says they love traveling. You’re pretty sure you like traveling.
It literally means “writing about cultures”– the studyof culture that’s written up. And a netnography is an adaptationof ethnography for the online world–for the contingencies of online communitiesand online cultures. So, rather than understanding themas just isolated content or text or photographs that peoplemight post online, it’s a way of seeing something like Facebookor something like Wikipedia as a living,breathing, thriving cultural community,sort of like an online equivalent of a villageor a neighborhood or a family or– chooseyour communal metaphor.
So what kind of techniques would you use, for example? Well, netnography really looks at the online communicationsor interactions that are already out there. It’s about following conversations, findingonline places of interaction, capturing that datain some way, analyzing it, looking for commonalitiesin it. So you can also merge it with things like interviews. That’s very frequently done, online or offline.
So, when I started, in , therewere only 18, different websites. There was a lot of action on someof the news groups and online communities,but the internet itself was very small. You know, there’s just a lot of places to do studies like this. So, if I were a PhD student wantingto start a netnographic study, what would be my first step?